Glossary of Terms
Accessible – A site, building, facility or portion thereof that complies with the accessibility requirements of the Fair Housing Act. Accessible Units – Units which satisfy Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and fully meet the handicap accessibility requirements of the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standard. Accessory Dwelling Unit (ADU) – A small, self-contained residential unit built on the same lot as an existing single-family home. ADUs may be built within a primary residence (such as in an attic or basement), attached to the primary residence (like a small duplex unit with a separate entrance), or detached from the primary residence (such as conversion of a detached garage). An ADU is subordinate in size, location, and function to the primary residential unit. [ADUs are referred to as "utility apartments" in Raleigh's zoning ordinance, which defines them as: One (1) or more rooms physically arranged to create an independent housekeeping establishment with separate facilities for cooking, sleeping and toilet for the occupancy by no more than two (2) persons. Rear yard dwellings or rear yard garage apartments are prohibited in all zoning districts in Raleigh.] Adaptable – The flexibility of certain building spaces to add features or adjust elements in a short time by unskilled labor without structural or material changes to accommodate the needs of persons with different types or degrees of disability. Examples of adaptable features include counter tops or closet rods that are supported by adjustable supports rather than built into the wall at a fixed level Affordable Housing – Affordable housing is generally defined as housing on which the occupant is paying no more than 30 percent of gross income for housing costs, including utilities. Reference: www.hud.gov Affordable Housing – Housing that has a sales price or rental amount that is within the means of a household with moderate income or less. In the case of dwelling units for sale, housing that is affordable means housing in which principal, interest, taxes, and insurance constitute no more than 30 percent of the gross household income for a household. In the case of dwelling units for rent, housing that is affordable means housing for which the rent, heat, and utilities other than telephone constitute no more than 30 percent of the gross annual household income Affordable Housing Program (AHP) – A program of the Federal Home Loan Bank system, AHP provides subsidized cash advances to member institutions, to permit them to make below-market loans for eligible housing activities. AMI – Area median income as determined by HUD and as may be adjusted by family size. Area median income (AMI) – The point at which half the households in an area make less and half make more. The median annual income figures are adjusted for family size and calculated annually by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) for every regional area in the country.
Bridge Financing or Bridge Loan – Short-term mortgage financing between the end of one loan or financing instrument and the beginning of another. Building and Housing Codes – State and local ordinances that prescribe certain minimum standards for construction, rehabilitation, or occupancy of affordable housing. It also relates to the acceptance or rejection of new building designs, materials, or technology intended to reduce the cost of affordable housing. Reference: www.huduser.org/rbc/categories.html
CDBG Funds – Community Development Block Grant Funds CHDO: A community housing development organization as defined at 24 CFR Part 92.2 of the Federal Regulations Community Development Financial Institutions Fund (CDFI Fund) - A federal agency in the U.S. Department of Treasury that certifies Community Development Financial Institutions. (CDFIs), administers grants, and also administers the New Markets Tax Credits program. Community Housing Land Trust – A non-profit organization that permanently holds land under homes and lease its use, through a long-term (usually 99-year) renewable lease, which gives the residents and their descendants the right to use the land for as long as they wish to live there. When homeowners on land trust property decide to move out of their homes, they can sell the structure. However, the land lease typically requires that the home be sold either back to the trust or to another lower income household, and for an affordable price Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) – A 1977 federal law that requires banks and savings and loan associations to help meet the credit needs of their local communities, including low-income communities. Reference: www.ffiec.gov/cra Consolidated Plan – A plan of up to five years in length that describes a community’s housing needs, resources, priorities, and proposed activities to be undertaken with certain HUD funding, including CDBG and HOME. The Consolidated Plan is must include opportunities for resident input and is updated annually.
Debt Service Coverage Ratio – Total revenue collected less operating expenses, exclusive of interest payments, less required reserve deposits divided by principal and interest payments. Density – The number of housing units per unit of land, usually per acre. Density Bonus – The allocation of development rights that allow a parcel to accommodate additional square footage or additional residential units beyond the maximum for which the parcel is zoned, usually in exchange for the provision or preservation of an amenity (such as affordable housing or open space) at the same site or at another location. Developer – Any person or entity (including persons or entities which constitute Related Persons to such person or entities or have an identity of interest with such person or entity) which owns or develops a Project, including any general partner of a partnership, any Builder related to or having an identity of interest with the person or entity which owns or develops the project and any consultant receiving any fee or compensation to assist in the development of a Project. DHH – The Louisiana State Department of Health and Hospitals
Difficult Development Areas – Areas designated by HUD as an area which has high construction, land, and utility costs relative to area median gross income
Disabled Household – A household composed of one or more persons at least one of whom has: (1) a disability as defined in Section 223 of the Social Security Act or (2) is determined to have a physical or emotional impairment that is expected to be on long-continued and indefinite duration and the impairment substantially impedes his/her ability to live independently, and is of such a nature that such ability could be improved by more suitable housing conditions OR (3) has a developmental disability as defined in Section 102 of the Developmental Disability Assistance and Bill of Rights Act.
DSS – The Louisiana State Department of Social Services.
Elderly Household – A household comprised of one or more persons, one of whom is 62 years of age or more. Elderly Person – A person who is 62 years of age or more at the time of initial occupancy. Eligible Target Population for Permanent Supportive Housing – Extremely Low Income Households consisting of one or more of the following:
- Hurricane displaces in need of permanent supportive housing living in the homeless shelter system or otherwise in temporary housing,
- Households in which an individual or household member has a substantial, long term disability as determined by DHH/DSS, including any one of the following:
- Serious Mental Illness,
- Addictive Disorder (i.e., individuals in treatment/recovery from substance abuse disorder),
- Developmental Disability (i.e., mental retardation, autism, or other disability acquired before the age of 22,
- Physical, sensory, or cognitive disability occurring after the age of 22 or
- Disability caused by chronic illness (e.g., people with HIV/AIDS who are no longer able to work),
- Frail Elderly Household,
- Homeless Household in need of permanent supportive housing or a household determined by DSS to be most-at-risk of homelessness and in need of permanent supportive housing or
- An individual or household member aging out of the foster care system and determined by DSS to be in need of permanent supportive housing.
Extremely Low Income Households – Households in which the household income at initial occupancy is thirty percent (30%) or les of area median income.
Fair Housing Act - The Fair Housing Act, or Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968, originally prohibited housing discrimination based solely on race, color, religion or national origin. In 1988, Congress expanded the law to include people with disabilities as a protected category within the terms of the Fair Housing Act. Fair Housing and Neighborhood Deconcentration – This category refers to state and local laws that prohibit discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, handicap, familial status, and national origin. It also refers to actions taken by state and local governments to enforce or evade these laws. Reference: www.huduser.org/rbc/categories.html Fair Market Rent (FMR) – HUD-determined benchmark rent level, used to establish regional payment standards for the Section 8 program Fannie Mae (Federal National Mortgage Association, or FNMA) – A government sponsored enterprise providing financial products and services, including purchase of mortgages from originators in order to facilitate new mortgage lending. Farmers Home Administration (FmHA): former name of the Rural Housing Service. Fees and Dedications – This category contains state and local requirements for the payment of fees, dedication of property, or installation of infrastructure to meet the increased demand on public services that result from a particular development. Reference: www.huduser.org/rbc/categories.html Frail Elderly – an elderly person with at least one impairment in Activities of Daily Living and/or multiple impairments in instrumental Activities of Daily Living as determined by DSS/DHH or the DHH/DSS. Freddie Mac (Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, or FHLMC) – A government sponsored enterprise providing financial products and services, including purchase of mortgages from originators in order to facilitate new mortgage lending.
Group Homes (Supportive Housing Residence) – A dwelling unit in which more than four unrelated persons may reside who are battered individuals, abused children, pregnant women and their children, runaway children, temporarily or permanently disabled mentally, emotionally or physically, individuals recovering from drug or alcohol abuse, and all other persons who possess a disability which is protected by the provisions of either the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1991, along with family members and support and supervisory personnel.
Historic Rehabilitation Credit – Tax Credits authorized to be taken by a Taxpayer for the rehabilitation of an historic property in accordance with the requirements of Section 38 of the Code. Home Investment Partnerships Program – The HOME program, administered by HUD’s Office of Community Planning and Development, provides formula grants to states and localities (See Participating Jurisdictions) to fund a wide range of activities that build, buy, and/or rehabilitate affordable housing for rent or home ownership or provide direct rental assistance to low-income people. The HOME program is authorized by Title II of the 1990 Cranston-Gonzalez national Affordable Housing Act. Homeless Person/Household – A person or household sleeping in a place not meant for human habitation or in an emergency shelter; and a person or household in transitional housing for homeless persons who originally came from the street or an emergency shelter. Housing Authority – Housing authorities are public corporations with boards appointed by the local government. Their mission is to provide affordable housing to low- and moderate-income people. In addition to public housing, housing authorities also provide other types of subsidized housing. Reference: www.phada.org/ha_list.php Housing Choice Vouchers (section 8) – Section 8 is a federal housing program providing rental assistance to eligible families and elderly residents that allows them to rent units in the private rental market. The most common Section 8 assistance is the voucher program. The program is tenant-based and the assistance stays with the family-where ever they choose to live as long as the landlord agrees to participate in the program HUD – The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.
Impact Fees – Impact fees are imposed to charge the owners of newly developed properties for the “impact” the new development will have on the community. Fees can be used for such things as transportation improvements, new parks, and expansion of schools. Impact fees are not used to maintain existing facilities, but instead are used to create new facilities in proportion to the number of new developments in the area. Reference: Inclusionary Zoning – Usually practiced in urban areas, is planning communities and developments that will provide housing to all income brackets. Inclusionary zoning ordinances often require any new housing construction to include a set percentage of affordable housing units. The positive aspects of Inclusionary zoning include the production of affordable housing at little cost to local government, the creation of income-integrated communities, and the lessening of sprawl. Negative aspects of inclusionary zoning may include shifting the cost of providing affordable housing, segmenting the upwardly mobile poor, and inducing growth. Inclusionary Zoning – Zoning regulations which create incentives or requirements for affordable housing development. This can include set-aside requirements or density bonuses for developers.
Land Trusts – A trust created to effectuate a real estate ownership arrangement in which the trustee holds legal and equitable title to the property subject to the provisions of a trust agreement setting out the rights of the beneficiaries whose interests in the trust are declared to be personal property. LLA – Local Lead Agency designated by DHH/DSS for management of supportive services for Permanent Supportive Housing. A DHH/DSS designated LLA may be a DHH Regional Office or human services district/authority. Local Government – A parish or municipality under the Louisiana Constitution of 1974 Local Participating Jurisdiction (LOCAL PJ) – One of any governmental unit or consortium of governmental units receiving HOME Funds directly from HUD and which is not a state recipient. Local PHA - A local public housing authority organized and existing under the State’s Housing Authorities Law at Chapter 30 of Title 40 of the Louisiana Revised Statutes of 1950, as amended. Louisiana Family Recovery Corps – A entity established within the State to coordinate and mobilize a network of providers, organizations and government agencies to deliver comprehensive humanitarian services to displaced residents of the State. Low Income – A household whose income does not exceed 80 percent of the median income for the area, as determined by HUD, with adjustments for smaller or larger families. Low income Housing Tax Credit – Many for-profit and nonprofit-developed rental properties use these federal income tax credits. The Washington State Housing Finance Commission allocates these credits to developers to build or fix up low-income housing. Large corporations, institutions, pension funds, and insurance companies invest in the housing as a method to gain the tax credits and reduce their income tax obligations. These apartments serve residents below 60% of median income and must accept Section 8 vouchers. Reference: www.phada.org/ha_list.php Low Income Housing Tax Credit – Tax incentive created in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 that is designed to attract equity capital for investment in rent restricted affordable housing. The program encourages the production of affordable housing by offering its owners tax credits for a ten year period based on the cost of development and the number of low income units produced. Low Income Housing Tax Credits (LIHTC) – Tax Credits are allocated to states on a per-capita basis and allocated by the states to affordable rental housing development and rehabilitation projects. Tax Credits are authorized pursuant to Section 42 of the Internal Revenue Code. LRA – The Louisiana Recovery Authority.
Market Rate Rent – The prevailing monthly cost for rental housing. It is set by the landlord without restrictions. Reference: www.phada.org/ha_list.php Market Study – An analysis performed by an Independent Qualified Housing Consultant which evidences demand for the proposed market matrix of a project, including demand capture rate at the subject property by bedroom type and which further the housing needs of the Targeted Households, Large Families, Tenants with Children and Special Needs Households if the Project serves Special Needs Households. Median Income - This is a statistical number set at the level where half of all households have income above it and half below it. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Regional Economist calculates and publishes this median income data annually in the Federal Register. Reference: www.phada.org/ha_list.php Mixed-Income – A type of development that includes families with various income levels. Mixed-income developments are intended to decrease economic and social isolation. Mixed-Use – A type of development that combines various uses, such as office, commercial, institutional, and residential, in a single building or on a single site in an integrated development project with significant functional interrelationships and a coherent physical design
Nonprofit Housing – Nonprofit housing is developed by nonprofit corporations with a community board of directors and mission. Most housing developed by nonprofit housing developers is affordable with rents or prices below market-rate. Income generated from the housing is put back into the mission of the organization, rather than being distributed to stockholders or individual investors as would be the case in for-profit housing. Reference: www.phada.org/ha_list.php Nonprofit Housing Developer – A nonprofit organization with a mission that involves the creation, preservation, renovation, operation or maintenance of affordable housing. Reference: www.phada.org/ha_list.php
OCD – The Office of Community Development in the Office of the Governor Operating Subsidy – This is a type of subsidy going to property owners to reduce the management, maintenance and utility costs of housing. It is needed for projects housing extremely low-income residents who can’t afford rents covering the actual costs of housing. Reference: www.phada.org/ha_list.php
Permanent Supportive Housing – Permanent Supportive Housing is housing that is: safe and secure; affordable to the eligible target population (monthly rent and utilities does not exceed 30% of monthly household income); and permanent, with continued occupancy as long as the eligible target population pays the rent and complies with the terms of the lease or applicable landlord/tenant laws in the State of Louisiana. The housing is linked with supportive services that are: flexible and responsive to the needs of the individual; available when needed by the eligible target population; and accessible where the tenant lives, if necessary Planning & Growth Restrictions - This refers to barriers and solutions included relate to the process of developing a comprehensive land use plan and the restrictions placed on future development based on a map of the community. The topic also covers activities such as smart growth programs, sewer and building permit moratoriums, or requirements for fiscal impact studies. Reference: www.huduser.org/rbc/categories.html Public Housing – Public housing is decent and safe rental housing owned by a housing authority and made available to households earning below 30% of area median income, the elderly, and persons with disabilities. Public housing comes in all sizes and types, from scattered single family houses to high-rise apartments for elderly families. Nationally there are approximately 1.3 million households living in public housing units, managed by some 3,300 public housing agencies (PHAs). The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) provides funds directly to local PHAs that manage the housing for low-income residents at rents they can afford.
RD: Means the Rural Development division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Real Estate Assessment Center (REAC): Office within HUD responsible for tracking, monitoring and enforcing the regulatory agreements of multifamily housing projects with FHA insurance or project-based assistance, including regular property inspections. Redevelopment/ Infill – This refers to the rules under which abandoned or underused property is redeveloped. This topic includes inner city redevelopment, single lot infill, and brown field’s redevelopment, as well as the process for obtaining the state and local government authorization to proceed with such work. Reference: www.huduser.org/rbc/categories.html Rent Controls – Defined as state and local government actions that restrict rent increases or service fee charges to tenants. Reference: www.huduser.org/rbc/categories.html Rental Assistance (RA): also known as Section 521 of the Housing Act of 1949, provides a direct subsidy for tenant in RHS Section 515- or 514/516- financed rental housing. Rural Area – Any area outside of a metropolitan statistical area (MSA). Rural Development (RD): Part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, RD administers grant and loan programs to promote and support housing and essential community facilities development in rural communities. Rural Housing Service (RHS): Part of the Department of Agriculture’s Rural Development division, RHS is responsible for administering a number of rural housing programs
Section 202 – A HUD program created in 1959 that provided direct government loans or grants to non-profits to develop housing for the elderly. Currently, the program provides capital grants and project rental assistance contracts. Section 221(d)(3) BMIR – A HUD program under which the federal government provided direct loans at a below-market interest rate (3 percent) and mortgage insurance to private developers of low and moderate income housing. Active 1963 – 1970. Section 236 – A program under which HUD provided interest subsidies (known as Interest Reduction Payments or IRP subsidies) and mortgage insurance to private developers of low and moderate income housing. The interest subsidy effectively reduced the interest rate on the loan to 1 percent. Active 1968 – 1975. Section 514 Loans and Section 516 Grants - RHS programs authorized by Sections 514 and 516 of the Housing Act of 1949. May be used to buy, build, improve or repair housing for farm laborers. Section 515 Rural Rental Housing Program – Authorized by Section 515 of the Housing Act of 1949. Provides funds for loans made by RHS to nonprofit, for profit, cooperatives and public entities for the construction of rental or cooperative housing in rural areas for families, elderly persons, persons with disabilities or for congregate living facilities Section 533 Housing Preservation Grant Program (HPG) – Authorized by Section 533 of the Housing Act of 1949. Grant funds are available from RHS to promote preservation of Section 515 properties. Section 538 Rental Housing Loan Guarantees – Authorized by Section 538 of the Housing Act of 1949. Enables RHS to guarantee loans made by private lenders for the development of affordable rural rental housing. This program serves a higher income population than that served by the Section 515 program. Section 8 – A federal housing assistance program in which participant A federal housing assistance program in which participants pay a portion of their adjusted gross income (i.e. income after standard deductions) for rent and the remainder of the rent is paid by HUD. Section 8 is either project based or tenant based. www.hud.gov/offices/pih/programs/hcv/index.cfm To pay a portion of their adjusted gross income (i.e. income after standard deductions) for rent and the remainder of the rent is paid by HUD. Section 8 is either project based or tenant based. www.hud.gov/offices/pih/programs/hcv/index.cfm Section 8 Housing – Many Section 8 contracts have expired or will expire soon, and the property owners must now decide whether to renew their contract or leave the program (“opt out”). Most of these contracts are now renewed on a one-year basis. Projects with high risk of opting out typically have rents set by the Section 8 contract below the prevailing market rents for comparable units. Owners thus have an incentive to leave the program and convert their property to private market rentals. Reference: www.huduser.org/rbc/categories.html Section 8 Project-Based Contracts – Administered by HUD’s Office of Multifamily Housing, Section 8 Project-Based Assistance takes the form of a contract between HUD and building owners, who agree to provide housing to eligible tenants in exchange for long-term tenant rental subsidies. Project-Based Assistance limits tenant contributions to 30 percent of the household’s adjusted income. Assistance may be provided to some or all of the units in a project occupied by eligible tenants and is attached to the unit and stays with the housing after the tenant leaves. Section 8 Project-Based Vouchers – Administered by HUD’s Office of Public and Indian Housing and local housing authorities, the Section 8 Project-Based Voucher program allows local housing authorities to contract with property owners to ensure that Section 8 voucher holders to will occupy up to 25 percent of a building’s units. When assisted tenants move and take their vouchers with them, new voucher holders replace them. Section 8 Vouchers – This federal program is administered by the local housing authority. Eligible tenants receive vouchers they can use to help them pay for apartments in the private market.Reference: www.huduser.org/rbc/categories.html Section 8 Vouchers – Administered by HUD’s Office of Public and Indian Housing and local housing authorities, portable vouchers are allocated to individual households and provide a rental subsidy, limiting the tenant contribution to 30 – 40 percent of the household’s adjusted income Section 811 – A HUD program created by Congress that provided direct government loans or grants to non-profits to develop housing for the people with disabilities. Currently, the program provides capital grants and project rental assistance contracts. SRO – A Project of single room occupancy providing Supportive Services in dwelling units that may or may not contain bathrooms or kitchen facilities and are appropriate for use as Supportive Housing State Additional Affordability Gap Financing – The loan of CDBG Funds of up to $15,000 per Low-Income Unit that (i) will cover Development Costs that cannot be funded with Equity or other funding sources, (ii) will be made available in the form of a nonrecourse loan secured by a junior lien on the project and (iii) will be come due on the earlier of (a) maturity at thirty (30) years, (b) sale of the property, (c) refinancing of the property or (d) acceleration as the result of material noncompliance with the terms of the loan. State and Local Tax Policies - Barriers and solutions which impact housing affordability, and include laws related to property taxes, tax assessments, transfer taxes, and sales taxes on building materials. It also refers to tax abatements or concessions and homestead exemptions. Reference: www.huduser.org/rbc/categories.html State Flexible Subsidy – The loan of CDBG Funds in connection with Mixed Finance Projects in one or more of the following forms: (i) a recoverable loan to fund an operating deficit reserve to cover cash flow deficits, (ii) a loan to cover Development Costs payable from a share of cash flow and residual value or (iii) a loan to cover development costs at the Applicable Federal Rate, with compound interest payable from a share of cash flow and residual value. State Project Based Rental Assistance – A fifteen (15) year subsidy contracted through OCD to pay the difference between the Payment Standard selected by the Taxpayer and the maximum tenant paid rent based upon income restrictions associated with the unit receiving the subsidy. The sponsor’s commitment to set aside units for State Project Based Rental Assistance will be documented in, and enforced through, the Tax Credit Regulatory Agreement. State Supportive Housing Gap Financing – The loan of CDBG Funds of up to $15,000 per Low-Income Unit set aside for a member of an Eligible Target Population for Permanent Supportive Housing that (i) will cover Development Costs that cannot be funded with Equity or other funding sources, (ii) will be made available in the form of a non-recourse loan secured by a junior lien on the project and (iii) will be come due on the earlier of (a) maturity at thirty (30) years, (b) sale of the property, (c) refinancing of the property or (d) acceleration as the result of material noncompliance with the terms of the loan. The Taxpayer may elect an interest of either (i) 1% simple interest payable from a share of cash flow and residual value or (ii) at the Applicable Federal Rate, with compound interest payable from a share of cash flow and residual value. State Supportive Services Grant – A grant from OCD to fund supportive services to support successful tenancies of members of Eligible Target Population for Permanent Supportive Housing (PSH) living in PSH units. After awards are made pursuant to this QAP, OCD will accept applications for additional State Supportive Service Grants, from DHH/DSS approved agencies, to support successful tenancies of members of Eligible Target Population for Permanent Supportive Housing units. interventions
- Facilitating arrangements for child care
- Service Coordination including services of a tenant services liaison
- Arranging access for acute and emergency care
- Mental health and substance abuse treatment
- Linkage to education and employment
- Arranging access to transportation and
- Services tailored to the frail elderly including securing access to meal services adequate to meet nutritional needs, housekeeping aid, personal assistance, and other services essential to a frail elder maintaining independent living.
Subsidized Housing – A generic term covering all federal, state or local government programs that reduce the cost of housing for low- and moderate-income residents. Housing can be subsidized in numerous ways-giving tenants a rent voucher, helping homebuyers with down payment assistance, reducing the interest on a mortgage, providing deferred loans to help developers acquire and develop property, giving tax credits to encourage investment in low- and moderate-income housing, authorizing tax-exempt bond authority to finance the housing, providing ongoing assistance to reduce the operating costs of housing and others. Public housing, project-based Section 8, Section 8 vouchers, tax credits, the State Housing Trust Fund, and Seattle Housing Levy programs are all examples of subsidized housing. Subsidized housing can range from apartments for families to senior housing high-rises. Subsidized simply means that rents are reduced because of a particular government program. It has nothing to do with the quality, location or type of housing. In fact, a number of Seattle’s subsidized housing developments have received local and national design awards. Reference: www.phada.org/ha_list.php Syndication Costs – Costs which are not includable in the tax credit basis for either the low income housing credit or the rehabilitation tax credit nor are allowable for depreciation purposes and which are the costs of syndicating a partnership and its related investment units. Syndication Proceeds – The funds generated by the Syndicator from investors seeking to acquire tax benefits in Projects through the Syndicator. Syndication – The process of acquiring an ownership interest in the Taxpayer by the Syndicator and investing equity in the Taxpayer by the Syndicator. Syndicator – The person or agent involved in directly providing equity to the Taxpayer or the person which owns or controls the person providing such equity Syndication Costs.
TIF (Tax Increment Financing) This tool is used by municipalities to capture future increases in property tax revenue and make these dollars available as a development incentive, subsidy or investment – Total Development Costs – Development Costs plus the cost of land. Transitional Housing – Shelter for homeless individuals and families for six months to two years in an environment of security and support designed to help residents progress toward self-sufficiency. A middle point between emergency shelter and permanent housing
Universal Design – Universal design incorporates the characteristics necessary for people with physical limitations into the design of common products and building spaces, so that that are comfortably usable by all people, not just people with disabilities. This method of design also makes products and homes more widely marketable and profitable. Examples of universal design features:
- Lowered light switches
- Levered door knobs
- Stair-less building entries
- Wider doorways
(See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_design) Very-Low Income – Defined by HUD as households below 50 percent of area median income Visitability – Designing new housing units to accommodate mobility impaired individuals or to allow “aging in place.” This concept typically includes three key features:
- At least one zero-step entrance on an accessible route leading from a driveway or public sidewalk,
- All interior doors providing at least 31 ¾ inches of unobstructed passage space and
- At least a half bathroom on the main floor (Visitability differs from universal design in that it does not ensure complete residence accessibility. Rather, it ensures that the principal spaces in a building, such as the entrance, entry-level floor and washroom facilities, are accessible to a person in a wheelchair.)
Zoning, Land Development, Construction and Subdivision – Rules and regulations that affect the use of land. It also contains rules and regulations that permit an owner to divide his land into smaller tracts. These activities include barriers, such as exclusionary zoning, as well as solutions, such as bonus density zoning. It also includes private restrictions on the use of property, such as deed restrictions. Reference: www.huduser.org/rbc/categories.html